Friday, September 14, 2012

IMPORTANCE OF MINERAL ZINC


Written by Debby Bruck, CHom

INTRODUCTION
The elemental mineral Zinc plays an important role in well being. Studies shows that zinc effects our sense of smell, the skin, the nervous system and mental faculties. Medical research shows zinc as a key element in the treatment of a range of diseases, for example type 2 diabetes, prostate cancer and Alzheimer’s disease.

The importance of zinc for normal growth and the survival of plants and animals was recognized a long time ago. Yet the existence of its deficiency in humans was doubted because of the element’s ubiquitous distribution in the environment and the lack of obvious clinical signs of deficiency. Nevertheless, evidence of human deficiency began to emerge during the 1960′s, when cases of zinc-responsive dwarfism and delayed sexual maturation were first reported in Egyptian adolescents [1]. Since then, a number of intervention trials have been carried out to assess the impact of zinc supplementation, particularly in low-income populations who are likely to suffer from zinc deficiency [2]. Results of these studies have shown that zinc supplementation increases growth among stunted children and reduces the prevalence of common childhood infections.

BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF ZINC

As previously stated, zinc is the most pervasive of all trace elements involved in human metabolism. More than one hundred specific enzymes require zinc for their catalytic function [3]. If zinc is removed from the catalytic site, activity is lost; replacement of zinc restores activity. Zinc participates in all major biochemical pathways and plays multiple roles in the perpetuation of genetic material, including transcription of DNA, translation of RNA, and ultimately cell division. When the supply of dietary zinc is insufficient to support these functions, biochemical abnormalities and clinical signs may develop. Studies in individuals with acrodermatitis enteropathica, a genetic disorder with zinc malabsorption resulting in severe deficiency, have provided much insight into the functional outcomes of zinc deficiency [4]. These include impairments of dermal, gastrointestinal, neurologic and immunologic systems.

ZINC AS AN IMMUNITY BOOSTER

Zinc affects both non-specific and specific immune functions. In terms of non-specific immunity, it affects the integrity of epithelial barrier and function of neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. With regard to specific immunity, both lymphopenia and declined lymphocyte function occur in zinc deficiency. Although most of these effects are derived from experimental animals, studies in human subjects have also shown that altered zinc status can affect immune competence. For example, elderly subjects who received supplemental zinc demonstrated improvement in delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity, number of circulating T cells and serum IgG antibody response to tetanus toxoid. In other studies of experimentally induced mild zinc deficiency among adults, a reduction in serum thymulin and specific subpopulations of lymphocytes occurred during zinc depletion, and these returned to normal levels following zinc repletion. Although specific links between altered immunity and different infections are not well understood, changes in immune functions are clinically important because decreased rates of infections have been observed following zinc supplementation in community based studies.

ZINC METABOLISM

Zinc is released from food as free ions during digestion. These liberated ions may then bind to endogenously secreted ligands before their transport into the enterocytes in the duodenum and jejunum [3]. Specific transport proteins may facilitate the passage of zinc across the cell membrane into the portal circulation. With high intakes, zinc is also absorbed through a passive paracellular route.

The portal system carries absorbed zinc directly to the liver, and then released into systemic circulation for delivery to other tissues. About 70% of zinc in circulation is bound to albumin, and any condition that alters serum albumin concentration can have a secondary effect on serum zinc levels. Although serum zinc represents only 0.1% of the whole body zinc, the circulating zinc turns over rapidly to meet tissue needs.

Loss of zinc through gastrointestinal tract accounts for approximately half of all zinc eliminated from the body. Considerable amounts of zinc is secreted through the biliary and intestinal secretions, but most of it is reabsorbed and this process is an important point of regulation of zinc balance. Other routes of zinc excretion include the urine and surface losses (desquamated skin, hair, sweat).

ZINC DEFICIENCY

Symptoms of zinc deficiency include:
 • Frequent infections
 • Hypogonadism in males
 • Loss of hair
 • Poor appetite
 • Problems with the sense of taste
 • Problems with the sense of smell
 • Skin sores
 • Slow growth
 • Trouble seeing in the dark
 • Wounds that take a long time to heal

Zinc supplements in large amounts may cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and vomiting, usually within 3 – 10 hours of swallowing the supplements. It is a good thing that symptoms go away within a short period of time after the stopping the supplements.

People who use nasal sprays and gels that contain supplemental zinc may have side effects such as losing their sense of smell. Homeopathic zinc would not incur these effects, unless used unnecessarily and unhomeopathically on a continual and unwarranted basis. Symptoms go away after stopping the use of homeopathic zinc.

What a substance can cause in a healthy individual can be cured in a sick person with the same symptoms. Thus, we can see the above side-effects match the homeopathic zinc. For example Bonninghausen lists inward pressure in the eyes, with fiery flakes on looking upward. Painful soreness on canthi with paralysis of upper lid. Could this be a more complete description of eye symptoms?

ZINC RESEARCH

In a new study, Prof Mike Watkinson, Dr Stephen Goldup and Dr Caroline Brennan, from Queen Mary’s School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, have focused their efforts on the development of a sensor for zinc to be used in studies on zebrafish [5].

Clinical manifestations of frank zinc deficiency may vary at different ages. In early infancy, diarrhea is a prominent symptom. Zinc deficiency leads to impaired cognitive function, behavioral problems, impaired memory, learning disability and neuronal atrophy [2]. Skin problems become more frequent as the child grows older. Alopecia, growth retardation and recurrent infections are common in school-age children. Chronic non-healing skin ulcers and recurrent infections are common among the elderly. These effects are derived from controlled clinical trials showing positive response to supplemental zinc.

RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCE

The government provides a Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamins and supplements. Many factors help decide how much will be needed, however these variables must be tailored individually to the needs of the person.

Infants
 0 – 6 months: 2* milligrams per day (mg/day)
 7 – 12 months: 3* mg/day
 *Adequate Intake (AI) Children
 1 – 3 years: 3 mg/day
 4 – 8 years: 5 mg/day
 9 – 13 years: 8 mg/day

Adolescents and Adults
 Males age 14 and over: 11 mg/day
 Females age 14 to 18 years: 9 mg/day
 Females age 19 and over: 8 mg/day

SOURCES OF ZINC

1. High-protein foods contain high amounts of zinc. Other good sources of zinc are nuts, whole grains, legumes, and yeast.
 2. Zinc occurs in a wide variety of foods, but is found in highest concentrations in animal sources, particularly beef, pork, poultry and fish, and in lesser amounts in eggs and dairy products. Zinc content is relatively high in nuts, legumes and whole grain cereals and is lower in fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables are not good sources. Low-protein diets and vegetarian diets tend to be low in zinc.
 3. Zinc is in most multivitamin and mineral supplements. These supplements may contain zinc gluconate, zinc sulfate, or zinc acetate. It is not clear whether one form is better than the others.
 4. Zinc is also found in some over-the-counter medicines, such as cold lozenges, nasal sprays, and nasal gels.
 5. The industry includes traces of zinc in processed foods.

ZINCUM METTALICUM (Homeopathic Zinc)

Boenninghausen provides the mental picture of one in need of homeopathic zinc. Moroseness especially in evening. Very sensitive to noise. Easily frightened, and long continued trembling after every emotion. Inclination to vehemence which greatly affects him. Extraordinarily changeable mood, in the morning buoyant, and in evening sad.

And generalities include tearing rheumatic pains. Worse from physical exertion or when becoming heated. Violent throbbing throughout the body, and jerks at night. Painful soreness both within and externally on the body. Spasms from fright. The location of pain appears between the skin and underlying tissue. Like Nux-v and Chamomilla, worse for wine, which intensifies symptoms, especially the keynote of restlessness at night.

Dr Allen says of zinc, when people suffer from cerebral and nervous exhaustion with defective vitality, inability of brain function, like loss of comprehension and memorization difficulty, zinc covers these symptoms.

The immune system may be too weak to develop a skin rash that typically accompanies a disease or fever. The body may not have the strength to carry on menstrual function, to expectorate, or even to urinate.

Every homeopath recognizes the constant, violent fidgety of feet or lower extremities, which wears out the nervous system. The restless leg syndrome in bed often seizes with zinc. Like agaricus and ignatia, tics, twitching and jerking of single muscles may be seen.

Like the snake remedies, zinc patients feel better in every way as soon as the menses begin to flow, relieving the patient.

Historically, zinc has been  used in the cerebral affections in impending paralysis of brain; where the vis medicatrix naturae is too weak to develop exanthemata (Cup., Sulph., Tub.); symptoms of effusion into ventricles.

Childhood Observations
 Child repeats everything said to it. Child cries out during sleep; whole body jerks during sleep; wakes frightened, starts, rolls the head from side to side; face alternately pale and red. Convulsions: during dentition, with pale face, no heat, except perhaps in occiput, no increase in temperature (rev. of Bell.); rolling the eyes; gnashing the teeth. Automatic motion of hands and head, or one hand and head (Apoc., Bry., Hell.).

Neurological Disorders
 Chorea from suppressed eruption or from fright, repeating Boenninghausen. The individual has a ravenous appetite around 11 or 12 a. m. (Sulph.) and what Allen calls, “greediness” when eating. In fact, it seems the person cannot eat fast enough, especially with these neurological disorders.

Skin and Perspiration

 With the above symptoms and sweaty smelly feet and toes, after suppressing the perspiration, great nervousness. Cannot tolerate any coverings during perspiration. The necessity for zinc, covers a wide spectrum of skin disorders due to poor circulation, poor nutrition, anemia, and hormonal changes and when taking certain drugs [beta-blockers] the reduced circulation results in chillbains. These small, itchy, painful swellings, worse from rubbing, generally appear on the skin after several hours of exposure to cold temperatures.

Sexual Organs

Sexual Organs effected with pain. Scrotum and testes painful and sore. Great incitation to coition with seminal discharge. Nymphomania in lying in women, with great sensitiveness of sexual organs. Grasping at the genitals.

Nervous System
 Spinal affections; burning whole length of spine; backache much < from sitting > by walking about (Cobalt., Puls., Rhus). Spinal irritation; great prostration of strength. Cannot bear back touched (Chin. s., Taren., Ther.).

Strange, rare and peculiar symptom: The ability to urinate only while sitting bent backwards.

Relations – Compare: Hell., Tuber., in incipient brain diseases from suppressed eruptions.
 Aggravation – Of many symptoms from drinking wine, even a small quantity (Alum., Con.).
 Amelioration – Symptoms: of chest, by expectoration; of bladder, by urinating; of back, by emissions (< by Cobalt.); general, by menstrual flow. Is followed well by, Ign., but not by Nux, which disagrees.
 Inimical – Cham., and Nux; should not be used before or after.

REFERENCES
 1. Escott-Stump S, ed. Nutrition and Diagnosis-Related Care. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.
 2. Sarubin Fragaakis A, Thomson C. The Health Professional’s Guide to Popular Dietary Supplements. 3rd ed. Chicago, Il: American Dietetic Association;2007.
 3. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 2000.
 4. Singh M, Das RR. Zinc for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;2:CD001364.
 5. A sensor to detect role of zinc in diseases like type 2 diabetes

Chemical Composition of Turmeric

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TURMERIC
Curcumin was first isolated in 1815, obtained in crystalline form in 1870 (Vogel and Pelletier,
1818; Daube, 1870), and identified as 1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-(1E,6E) or diferuloylmethane (Figure 10.3). The feruloylmethane skeleton of curcumin was
subsequently confirmed in 1910 by the initial work and synthesis by Lampe (Lampe, 1910; Lampe
and Milobedzka, 1913). Curcumin is a yellow-orange powder that is insoluble in water and ether
but soluble in ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, and acetone. Curcumin has a melting point of 183C,
molecular formula of C21H20O6, and molecular weight of 368.37 g/mol.
Curcumin (also known as curcumin I) occurs naturally in the rhizome of Curcuma longa, which
is grown commercially and sold as turmeric, a yellow-orange dye. Turmeric contains curcumin
along with other chemical constituents known as the “curcuminoids” (Srinivasan, 1952).
The major medicinal properties of curcumin are -

Chemopreventive
Skin, liver, colon, stomach
Diabetes
Cardiovascular
diseases
Cholestrol, platelet aggregation
Arthritis
Antiinflammatory
Chemotheraputic
Antiangiogenic Antioxidant
Multiple sclerosis
Alzheimer disease
Lung fibrosis
Nephrotoxicity
Cardiotoxicity
Wound healing
HIV replication
Cataract formation
Gall-stones formation
Inhibits vascular
smooth muscle cell
proliferation
Curcumin
Inflammatory
bowel disease
Immunosuppressive
Septic shock
Liver injury
Inhibits Scarring
Multidrug resistance

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Hom. management of Anxiety Disorders

Paediatric homoeopathy in general practice: where, when and why?

Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Jun;59(6):743-9.

Ekins-Daukes S, Helms PJ, Taylor MW, Simpson CR, McLay JS.

Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The University of Aberdeen, Polwarth Buildings, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD.
AIMS: To investigate the extent of homoeopathic prescribing in primary care for childhood diseases and assess GP attitudes towards the use of homoeopathy in children.
METHODS: Homoeopathic prescribing in primary care was assessed in 167 865 children aged 0-16 years for the year 1999-2000. Computerized prescribing data were retrieved from 161 representative general practices in Scotland. Medical attitudes towards homoeopathic prescribing to children were also assessed via a questionnaire survey.
RESULTS: During the year 1999-2000 22% (36) of general practices prescribed homoeopathic medicines to 190 (1.1/1000 registered) children. The majority of such prescriptions were issued to children under 1 year of age (8.0/1000 registered children). The most frequently prescribed medicines were for common self-limiting infantile conditions such as colic, cuts and bruises, and teething. A total of 259 completed questionnaires were returned by GPs, giving a response rate of 75%. GPs who frequently prescribed homoeopathic medicines to children (more than 1 per month) were more likely to claim an interest in homoeopathy, have had a formal training and keep up to date in the discipline, and refer on to a homoeopath (P < 0.001 for all variables) than those GPs who prescribed less than once a month or never. The majority of GPs who prescribed homoeopathic medicines did so when conventional treatments had apparently failed (76%), while 94% also perceived homoeopathy to be safe. Frequent prescribers reported a more positive attitude towards homoeopathic medicines than those who prescribed less frequently. Non-prescribers reported a lack of proven efficacy and lack of training as the main reasons for not prescribing homoeopathic medicines (55% and 79%, respectively). However non-prescribers from within homoeopathic prescribing practices reported a more favourable attitude in general towards homoeopathy and less resistance towards prescribing in the future than non-prescribers from practices where none of the partners practiced homoeopathy.
CONCLUSIONS: In primary care paediatric prescribing of homoeopathic medicines most commonly occurs for self-limiting conditions in infants less than 1 year of age. Although the current level of homoeopathic prescribing is low, the widespread use in the community suggests that at least some knowledge of the main indications for homoeopathy and the preparations used would be of benefit to registered medical practitioners.

PMID: 15948942 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Anxiety Screening Quiz


Use this quiz to help you determine
if you might need to see a mental health professional for diagnosis
and treatment of an anxiety or panic disorder.


Instructions: This is a screening measure to help you determine whether you might have an anxiety disorder that needs professional attention. This screening measure is not designed to make a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder or take the place of a professional diagnosis or consultation. Please take the time to fill out the below form as accurately, honestly and completely as possible.


Think back about how you've felt over the past month. Please choose how often you've experienced each of the following anxiety symptoms during that time:
Usually Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Pounding heart





Sweating





Trembling or shaking





Shortness of breath





Afraid or scared





Chest pain or discomfort





Usually Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Nausea or abdominal distress





Feeling dizzy or unsteady





Fear of losing control or going crazy





Numbness or tingling sensations





chills or hot flashes





Fear of dying





Usually Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Constant or persistent worry





Feeling of choking





Unable to relax





Feeling of being unreal





Nervous





Feeling shaky or wobbly





Usually Often Sometimes Rarely Never
Irritable or difficulty sleeping





Trembling hands





Avoid situations because of anxiety





Feeling lightheaded or faint







Monday, June 6, 2011

DSM-IV Complete Code List of Mental Disorders

In the list below you can see all known mental disorders and the attributed code.
The fifth digit denotes severity and level for “major depressive” and “Manic” episodes where: .01- mild; .02- moderate; .03- severe, but without psychotic features; .04- severe with psychotic features; .05- partially remissioned; .06- fully remissioned; .00- unspecified
Code Mental Disorder
290.0 Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Late Onset, Uncomplicated
290.10 Dementia due to Pick’s Disease
290.10 Dementia due to Creutzfeld-Jacob disease
290.10 Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Early Onset, Uncomplicated
290.11 Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Early Onset, With Delirium
290.12 Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Early Onset, With Delusions
290.13 Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Early Onset, With Depressed Mood
290.20 Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Late Onset, With Delusions
290.21 Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Late Onset, With Depressed Mood
290.3 Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type, With Late Onset, With Delirium
290.40 Vascular Dementia, Uncomplicated
290.41 Vascular Dementia, With Delirium
290.42 Vascular Dementia, With Delusions
290.43 Vascular Dementia, With Depressed Mood

291.0 Alcohol Intoxication Delirium
291.0 Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium
291.1 Alcohol-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder
291.2 Alcohol-Induced Persisting Dementia
291.3 Alcohol-Induced Psychotic Disorder With Hallucinations
291.5 Alcohol-Induced Psychotic Disorder With Delusions
291.8 Alcohol Withdrawal
291.8 Alcohol-Induced Mood Disorder
291.8 Alcohol-Induced Anxiety Disorder
291.8 Alcohol-Induced Sleep Disorder
291.8 Alcohol-Induced Sexual Dysfunction
291.9 Alcohol-Related Disorder NOS

292.0 Substance [Amphetamine, Cocaine, Nicotine, Opioid, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)] Withdrawal
292.11 Substance [Amphetamine, Cannabis, Cocaine, Hallucinogen, Inhalant, Opioid, Phencyclidine, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)]-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Delusions
292.12 Substance [Amphetamine, Cannabis, Cocaine, Hallucinogen, Inhalant, Opioid, Phencyclidine, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)]-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Hallucinations
292.81 Substance [Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)] Withdrawal Delirium
292.81 Substance [Amphetamine, Cannabis, Cocaine, Hallucinogen, Inhalant, Opioid, Phencyclidine, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)] Intoxication Delirium
292.82 Substance [Inhalant, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)]-Induced Persisting Dementia
292.83 Substance [Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)]-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder
292.84 Substance [Amphetamine, Cocaine, Hallucinogen, Inhalant, Opioid, Phencyclidine, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)]-Induced Mood Disorder
292.89 Substance [Amphetamine, Caffeine, Cannabis, Cocaine, Hallucinogen, Inhalant, Phencyclidine, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)]-Induced Anxiety Disorder
292.89 Substance [Amphetamine, Caffeine, Cocaine, Opioid, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)]-Induced Sleep Disorder
292.89 Substance [Amphetamine, Cocaine, Opioid, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)]-Induced Sexual Dysfunction
292.89 Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (Flashbacks)
292.89 Substance [Amphetamine, Cannabis, Cocaine, Hallucinogen, Inhalant, Opioid, Phencyclidine, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)] Intoxication
292.9 Substance [Amphetamine, Caffeine, Cannabis, Cocaine, Hallucinogen, Inhalant, Nicotine, Opioid, Phencyclidine, Sedative*, Other (or Unknown)]-Related Disorder NOS

293.0 Delirium Due to General Medical Condition
293.81 Psychotic Disorder Due to [General Medical Condition], With Delusions
293.82 Psychotic Disorder Due to [General Medical Condition], With Hallucinations
293.83 Mood Disorder Due to General Medical Condition
293.89 Anxiety Disorder Due to General Medical Condition
293.89 Catatonic Disorder Due to General Medical Condition
293.9 Mental Disorder due to General Medical Condition

294.0 Amnestic Disorder Due to General Medical Condition
294.1 Dementia Due to Parkinson’s Disease
294.1 Dementia Due to Head Trauma
294.1 Dementia Due to Huntington’s Disease
294.1 Dementia Due to [Other General Medical Condition]
294.8 Dementia NOS or Amnestic Disorder NOS
294.9 Dementia Due to HIV Disease
294.9 Cognitive Disorder NOS

295.10 Schizophrenia, Disorganized Type
295.20 Schizophrenia, Catatonic Type
295.30 Schizophrenia, Paranoid Type
295.40 Schizophreniform Disorder
295.60 Schizophrenia, Residual Type
295.70 Schizoaffective Disorder
295.90 Schizophrenia Undifferentiated Type
296.0x Bipolar I Disorder Single Manic Episode
296.2x Major Depressive Disorder Single Episode
296.3x Major Depressive Disorder Recurrent
296.40 Bipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode Hypomanic
296.4x Bipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode Manic
296.5x Bipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode Depressed
296.6x Bipolar I Disorder Most Recent Episode Mixed
296.7 Bipolar I Disorder, Most recent episode Unspecified
296.80 Bipolar Disorder NOS
296.89 Bipolar II Disorder
296.90 Mood Disorder NOS

297.1 Delusional Disorder
297.3 Shared Psychotic Disorder

298.8 Brief Psychotic Disorder
298.9 Psychotic Disorder NOS

299.00 Autistic Disorder
299.10 Childhood Disintegrative Disorder
299.80 Rett’s Disorder
299.80 Asperger’s Disorder
299.80 Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS

300.00 Anxiety Disorder NOS
300.01 Panic Disorder Without Agoraphobia
300.02 Generalized Anxiety Disorder
300.11 Conversion Disorder
300.12 Dissociative Amnesia
300.13 Dissociative Fugue
300.14 Dissociative Identity Disorder
300.15 Dissociative Disorder NOS
300.16 Factitious Disorder With Predominantly Psychological Signs and Symptoms
300.19 Factitious Disorder NOS
300.19 Factitious Disorder With Combined Psychological and Physical Signs and Symptoms
300.19 Factitious Disorder With Predominantly Physical Signs and Symptoms
300.21 Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia
300.22 Agoraphobia Without History of Panic Disorder
300.23 Social Phobia
300.29 Specific Phobia
300.3 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
300.4 Dysthymic Disorder
300.6 Depersonalization Disorder
300.7 Body Dysmorphic Disorder
300.7 Hypochondriasis
300.81 Somatization Disorder
300.81 Undifferentiated Somatoform Disorder
300.81 Somatoform Disorder NOS
300.9 Unspecified Mental Disorder (nonpsychotic)

301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder
301.13 Cyclothymic Disorder
301.20 Schizoid Personality Disorder
301.22 Schizotypal Personality Disorder
301.4 Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
301.50 Histrionic Personality Disorder
301.6 Dependent Personality Disorder
301.7 Antisocial Personality Disorder
301.81 Narcissistic Personality Disorder
301.82 Avoidant Personality Disorder
301.83 Borderline Personality Disorder
301.9 Personality Disorder NOS

302.2 Pedophilia
302.3 Transvestic Fetishism
302.4 Exhibitionism
302.6 Gender Identity Disorder NOS
302.6 Gender Identity Disorder in Children or Gender Identity Disorder NOS
302.70 Sexual Dysfunction NOS
302.71 Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
302.72 Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
302.72 Male Erectile Disorder
302.73 Female Orgasmic Disorder
302.74 Male Orgasmic Disorder
302.75 Premature Ejaculation
302.76 Dyspareunia (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)
302.79 Sexual Aversion Disorder
302.81 Fetishism
302.82 Voyeurism
302.83 Sexual Masochism
302.84 Sexual Sadism
302.85 Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults
302.89 Frotteurism
302.9 Sexual Disorder NOS
302.9 Paraphilia NOS

303.00 Alcohol Intoxication
303.90 Alcohol Dependence

304.00 Opioid Dependence
304.10 Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Dependence
304.20 Cocaine Dependence
304.30 Cannabis Dependence
304.40 Amphetamine Dependence
304.50 Hallucinogen Dependence
304.60 Inhalant Dependence
304.80 Polysubstance Dependence
304.90 Phencyclidine Dependence
304.90 Other (or Unknown) Substance Dependence

305.00 Alcohol Abuse
305.10 Nicotine Dependence
305.20 Cannabis Abuse
305.30 Hallucinogen Abuse
305.40 Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Abuse
305.50 Opioid Abuse
305.60 Cocaine Abuse
305.70 Amphetamine Abuse
305.90 Phencyclidine Abuse
305.90 Inhalant Abuse
305.90 Other (or Unknown) Substance Abuse

306.51 Vaginismus (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)

307.0 Stuttering
307.1 Anorexia Nervosa
307.20 Tic Disorder NOS
307.21 Transient Tic Disorder
307.22 Chronic Motor or Vocal Tic Disorder
307.23 Tourette’s Disorder
307.3 Stereotypic Movement Disorder
307.42 Primary Insomnia
307.42 Insomnia Related to [General Medical Condition]
307.44 Primary Hypersomnia
307.44 Hypersomnia Related to [General Medical Condition]
307.45 Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder
307.46 Sleep Terror Disorder
307.46 Sleepwalking Disorder
307.47 Dyssomnia NOS
307.47 Nightmare Disorder
307.47 Parasomnia NOS
307.50 Eating Disorder NOS
307.51 Bulimia Nervosa
307.52 Pica
307.53 Rumination Disorder
307.59 Feeding Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood
307.6 Enuresis (Not Due to a General Medical Condition)
307.7 Encopresis Without Constipation and Overflow Incontinence
307.80 Pain Disorder Associated With Psychological Factors
307.89 Pain Disorder Associated With Both Psychological Factors and a General Medical Condition
307.9 Communication Disorder NOS

308.3 Acute Stress Disorder

309.0 Adjustment Disorder With Depressed Mood
309.21 Separation Anxiety Disorder
309.24 Adjustment Disorder With Anxiety
309.28 Adjustment Disorder With Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood
309.3 Adjustment Disorder With Disturbance of Conduct
309.4 Adjustment Disorder With Mixed Disturbance of Emotions and Conduct
309.81 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
309.9 Adjustment Disorder Unspecified

310.1 Personality Disorder Due to General Medical Condition

311 Depressive Disorder NOS

312.30 Impulse-Control Disorder NOS
312.31 Pathological Gambling
312.32 Kleptomania
312.33 Pyromania
312.34 Intermittent Explosive Disorder
312.39 Trichotillomania
312.81 Conduct Disorder

313.81 Oppositional Defiant Disorder
312.9 Disruptive Behavior Disorder NOS
313.23 Selective Mutism
313.81 Oppositional Defiant Disorder
313.82 Identity Problem
313.89 Reactive Attachment Disorder of Infancy or Early Childhood
313.9 Disorder of Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence NOS

314.00 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type
314.01 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Combined Type
314.01 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly hyperactive-Impulsive Type
314.9 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder NOS

315.00 Reading Disorder
315.1 Mathematics Disorder
315.2 Disorder of Written Expression
315.31 Expressive Language Disorder
315.31 Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Disorder
315.39 Phonological Disorder
315.4 Developmental Coordination Disorder
315.9 Learning Disorder NOS

316 Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Condition

317 Mild mental retardation

318.0 Moderate Mental Retardation
318.1 Severe Mental Retardation
318.2 Profound Mental Retardation

319 Mental Retardation, Severity Unspecified

332.1 Neuroleptic-Induced Parkinsonism
333.1 Medication-Induced Postural Tremor
333.7 Neuroleptic-Induced Acute Dystonia
333.82 Neuroleptic-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia
333.90 Medication-Induced Movement Disorder NOS
333.92 Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome
333.99 Neuroleptic-Induced Acute Akathisia

347 Narcolepsy

607.84 Male Erectile Disorder Due to [General Medical Condition]
608.89 Male Dyspareunia Due to [General Medical Condition]
608.89 Other Male Sexual Dysfunction Due to [General Medical Condition]
608.89 Male Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Due to [General Medical Condition]

625.0 Female Dyspareunia Due to [General Medical Condition]
625.8 Other Female Sexual Dysfunction Due to [General Medical Condition]
625.8 Female Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder Due to [General Medical Condition]

780.09 Delirium NOS
780.52 Sleep Disorder Due to [General Medical Condition], Insomnia Type
780.54 Sleep Disorder Due to [General Medical Condition], Hypersomnia Type
780.59 Sleep Disorder Due to [General Medical Condition], Parasomnia
780.59 Breathing-Related Sleep Disorder
780.59 Sleep Disorder Due to [General Medical Condition], Mixed Type
780.9 Age-Related Cognitive Decline

787.6 Encopresis, With Constipation and Overflow Incontinence

799.9 Diagnosis or Condition Deferred on Axis I or Diagnosis Deferred on Axis II

995.2 Adverse Effects of Medication NOS
995.5 Neglect of Child (if focus of attention is on victim)
995.5 Sexual abuse of child (if focus of attention is on victim)
995.5 Physical abuse of child (if focus of attention is on victim)
995.81 Physical abuse of adult (if focus of attention is on victim)
995.81 Sexual abuse of adult (if focus of attention is on victim)

V15.81 Noncompliance With Treatment
V61.1 Partner Relational Problem
V61.1 Physical or Sexual Abuse of Adult
V61.20 Parent-Child Relational Problem
V61.21 Sexual or Physical Abuse or Neglect of Child
V61.8 Sibling Relational Problem
V61.9 Relational Problem Related to [a Mental Disorder or General Medical Condition]
V62.2 Occupational Problem
V62.3 Academic Problem
V62.4 Acculturation Problem
V62.81 Relational Problem NOS
V62.82 Bereavement
V62.89 Phase of Life Problem
V62.89 Religious or Spiritual Problem
V62.89 Borderline Intellectual Functioning
V65.2 Malingering
V71.01 Adult Antisocial Behavior
V71.02 Child or Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
V71.09 No Diagnosis or Condition on Axis I or Axis II

Adjunctive homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an intensive care unit

Adjunctive homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an intensive care unit

M. Frass1, , , M. Linkesch2, S. Banyai2, 3, G. Resch1, C. Dielacher2, T. Löbl2, C. Endler1, M. Haidvogl1, I. Muchitsch1 and E. Schuster4
1 Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Homeopathy, Graz, Austria
2 II Department of Internal Medicine, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
3 Cantonal Hospital of Lucerne, Switzerland
4 Department of Medical Computer Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
Received 3 August 2004;
revised 11 January 2005;
accepted 26 January 2005.
Available online 1 April 2011.

Background
Mortality in patients with severe sepsis remains high despite the development of several therapeutic strategies. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate whether homeopathy is able to influence long-term outcome in critically ill patients suffering from severe sepsis.
Methods
Seventy patients with severe sepsis received homeopathic treatment (n=35) or placebo (n=35). Five globules in a potency of 200c were given at 12 h interval during the stay at the intensive care unit. Survival after a 30 and 180 days was recorded.
Results
Three patients (2 homeopathy, 1 placebo) were excluded from the analyses because of incomplete data. All these patients survived. Baseline characteristics including age, sex, BMI, prior conditions, APACHE II score, signs of sepsis, number of organ failures, need for mechanical ventilation, need for vasopressors or veno-venous hemofiltration, and laboratory parameters were not significantly different between groups. On day 30, there was non-statistically significantly trend of survival in favour of homeopathy (verum 81.8%, placebo 67.7%, P=0.19). On day 180, survival was statistically significantly higher with verum homeopathy (75.8% vs 50.0%, P=0.043). No adverse effects were observed.
Conclusions
Our data suggest that homeopathic treatment may be an useful additional therapeutic measure with a long-term benefit for severely septic patients admitted to the intensive care unit. A constraint to wider application of this method is the limited number of trained homeopaths.