Tuesday, January 19, 2010

John Martin Horninberger`s account 1836 - 1839

At Paris, my steps were first directed towards the domicile of the father of Homoeopathy, the celebrated Doctor Hahnemann. In Russia, I had been already told of the prodigious effects of his new healing system, and I earnestly desired to learn it at the source itself. The magnanimous old man and his lovely young wife received me in the most friendly manner, and I must not omit to mention, that the open and good-natured Homoeopathist made many interesting revelations to me respecting his new method of curing. It was particularly important to me that Hahnemann recommended to me his apothecary at Kothen, Doctor Lehman.

The voyage from London to Hamburg, which I performed in a steamer, lasted a day longer than ordinary, and was one of the most dreadful and annoying I have ever experienced. We were overtaken by a tempest, by which the vessel was tossed about in such a manner that all the passengers suffered from sea-sickness. If I say that our feelings were those of a person whose bowels are being cut through with sharp knives, the comparison would remain far behind the real fact. At Berlin, I met with an old friend, Doctor Ehrenberg, the naturalist, whom I accompanied many years ago to the ruins of Balbeck; he was in good health, and we conversed about that journey ; but Doctor Hemprich, his then travelling companion, had already left this world. According to Hahnemann's advice, I introduced myself, at Kothen, to Doctor Lehman, from whom I bought a considerable quantity of homceopathic medicines. From Kothen I went to Leipsic, Dresden and Toplitz, at which place was that celebrated congress of the Emperors of Austria and. Russia, the King of Prussia, and the most celebrated diplomatists, as also a great number of the elite of the nobility. It may easily be imagined, that on such an occasion there was no lack of festivals and amusements, in which I took some share, as I met with a very kind reception, owing, perhaps, to my oriental costume.

From Toplitz I returned to Kronstadt, my native country, in order to pass the carnival there among my relations. In the spring of the year 1836, I went to Vienna, on particular business, and I stayed there till the autumn. In the summer of the same year, the long-dreaded guest, Cholera, was raging in that capital. I myself felt the first symptoms of that dreadful and destroying epidemic. I had spasms and a diarrhea; I therefore lost no time in applying my remedies, taking, every half-hour, a homoeopathic dose of ipecacuanha. This remedy proved quite efficacious, and I was fortunate enough to be entirely recovered in the space of six hours.

As there are many substitutes ior ipecacuanha, I think it not superfluous to mention on this occasion, that it is only the genuine drug that can produce the desired effect ,that by which I was restored, was from Doctor Lehman.The good result which I experienced in myself and others, from adopting the homoeopathic system, induced me to extend the practice to a larger circle of patients. For that purpose I chose the capital of the Ottoman Empire, which I thought particularly suitable, as it was at no great distance from my native country, and because I was acquainted with the oriental languages, habits and manners. Besides that, my pecuniary circumstances were rather embarrassed, as the reader may be aware, owing to the losses I had sustained in different countries, particularly in Bokhara ( by the Armenians ) and in Russia (by my sable transactions). To carry out my plan, I petitioned for a passport to Constantinople, which I obtained without any difficulty.

I departed from Vienna, passed through Kronstadt and Bukarest for Gallaz, where I embarked, not as previously at Verna in an open vessel, but in a steamer bound to Constantinople. Contrary to my expectation, the Plague was raging there at that time, and the Europeans kept themselves shut up in their houses, far from any contact with the world. Under such circumstances, I had no alternative but to wait for another opportunity. To do this with more comfort, I hired a small house on the shores of the Bosphorus, in a village situated in the most pleasant part of that country, from which I enjoyed a beautiful prospect. On the very evening of my taking possession of the cottage, I was called to attend a Greek lady living in my neighborhood, who required my medical assistance. I was told that she had a fever. I found her in bed, complaining of being uneasy and costive, accompanied with a headache, so I ordered her an emollient clyster, which I myself was obliged to administer, as nobody could undertake to do it. But, to my alarm, I was informed on the following morning that she had died during the night of the plague, her husband having preceded her but a few days from the same complaint. The house of the deceased was immediately shut up. At that time the quarantine establishments at Constantinople were still in their original state of organisation, my small house therefore remained free, and luckily it was not infected with the plague. The circumstance of my not being myself affected by it — neither had I conveyed it to my household — induced me to believe that I had not any disposition to be attacked by that pestilential disease. I was also of opinion that the plague was not contagious. In order to have some experience in this matter, I tendered
my services at once to the plague-hospital at Pera, where the poor patients were left to their fate, as no medical assistance or any other aid was to be had without any authority or permission. I attended them at my own expense. I proceeded, to the satisfaction of all the attendants and patients, to treat the infected according to the homoeopathic principle, and my endeavours were mostly crowned with success. All this, effected by the most simple treatment, did not fail to procure me, in a very short time, a great reputation; so that, after the extinction of the plague,and the abolition of all quarantine, I was in great request among the most respectable private families. But, before I proceed to prove the efficacy of the minute doses of homoeopathic medicines, I must first speak of a special remedy, which proved very efficacious, employed as a prophylactic or curative; and, I dare to say, with respect to the plague, it might be considered as a specific.

During my stay at Constantinople I frequently had an opportunity of making the observation that many individuals, especially Armenians, wore a string, to which was attached a bean, called Strychnos Faba St. Ignatii, as a preventive against the plague. Having been informed that this bean was acknowledged to be an effective one, I administered it in minute doses, as a medicine, and that with the best success. The particulars will be mentioned in the course of this work.

Among the above-mentioned private houses in which they relied on my medical skill, was that of M. Shabert. The head of this respectable family had been formerly invested with the office of English interpreter.

It is the duty of a physician to have patience when he has occasion to attend old ladies; and thus I must crave the reader's indulgence while 1 relate what Mrs. Shabert communicated to me. She began thus:— " A young Greek stabbed my son with a stiletto ; and, at the moment when he was about to cry out for assistance, the Greek was so malicious as to thrust the weapon into his mouth and cut a blood-vessel, from which a violent bleeding ensued, and it could only be stopped by immediate surgical assistance. He was taken to the consulate, in front of which it happened, and where he was employed. By the application of red-hot iron, the blood was stanched but two or three days subsequently, the bleeding began afresh, and the patient felt exhausted; when the bleeding was renewed for the third time, he became much worse. On the ensuing night, he was restless, and in a state of great perturbation from his dreams. It appeared to him as if his adversary was running towards him, with the stiletto in his grasp. The attendant physicians, thinking this symptom to be the forerunner of another flow of blood, declared the patient's state to be very critical, being persuaded that, upon another bleeding, death was inevitable." In this awful position, the family proposed to the physicians to allow them a trial of homoeopathy. They readily consented, in the hope of meeting with a good opportunity of rendering homoeopathy ridiculous, and showing the public the inutility of that system. Mrs. Shabert having finished, her husband requested me to accompany him to the consulate, where his son was then lying, in order that I might cure him. I found the youth very much reduced, but tranquil in mind. His surgeon, a Frenchman, who was present, or rather was waiting for me, told me he had, by a repetition,stanched the blood with a red-hot iron and other styptics, but that another bleeding was to be feared as soon as the scab should come from the wound, and as the parents of the patient were anxious to try homoeopathy, he consented, and I administered, in his presence, three Lilliputian pills of Aranea diadema (Xooo ), and then took my leave. When I called on my patient in the morning, he told me that he had passed a quiet night, that his former physician had already been there, and on hearing that no bleeding had taken place, he had prescribed for him some pills; but he again and again repeated, that he felt no inclination to take them, as he preferred my medicine, which had proved so beneficial. Whilst I was preparing the medicament, the doctor, who was an Italian, came in, and was about to fasten a quarrel on me; but old M. Shabert took him by the arm and led him into another room, from which he disappeared, and I saw him no more. I repeated the medicine for eight days, at the end of which time he was completely recovered. I must observe here, that the Aranea diadema was prepared by Doctor Lehmann, at Kothen, whose medicines, as I have already mentioned, were recommended to me by Hahnemann.

What did the surgeon do in the meanwhile? To show that the recovery of the young man was the effect of his treatment, he ordered a dog to be brought from the bazaar, and cut through its crural artery, and then applied his styptic ( creosote ) ; but seeing that the wound did not heal, he allowed the dog to escape, and a short time afterwards the animal was found dead in the street.

Another case occurred in the above-mentioned family, with a female, which may serve as an example how small homoeopathic doses not only produce effects, but sometimes cause great and beneficial excitement.

A sister of the young Shabert was troubled for many years with a megrim. This evil was accompanied with a nervous pain in the face, which made itself sensible at intervals of three or four days, in the early part of the day, like a disguised fever. In the moment of one of these paroxysms, I administered to her a dose of Pulsatilla; but afterwards she became so much worse, that her husband,Siguor Salzani, came to me at ten o'clock at night, in great alarm, to tell me that his wife had become almost mad, and that they had to use great efforts to prevent her from throwing herself out of the window. But this was her last paroxysm; at least she had no more during my stay at Constantinople. The dose of Pulsatilla which I administered to her, was one drop of the third dilution on a lump of sugar; the tincture I had brought with me from Vienna.

At that period, the prince Abdool Mesjeet (now Sultan)fell dangerously sick, and I was told that his royal father had dismissed all the physicians, English, French, Greek and Turk, on account of their unsuccessful treatment, and that my reputation and fortune would be established if I succeeded in curing him. I replied that my rule was — "Noli accedere, nisi vocatus," adding, that only on the request of the Sultan would I undertake to attend he royal prince; his majesty, however, was fortunate enough to find a physician who performed the cure in a few days. The Sultan ordered those doctors who had attended his son formerly, to make their appearance again in the seraglio, and presented him to them, asking whether they thought he was perfectly recovered. They expressed their astonishment at this unexpected and sudden recovery, and wished much to see that miraculous doctor, who had performed such a cure, in so short a time. The Sultan opened the door of a side room, out of which there issued an Armenian lady, in Turkish costume, whom he presented to them, smiling, as the miraculous doctor to whom his son owed his recovery, to the shame of the assembled doctors. To bestow on her greater honor, he ordered it to be publicly declared in all the Christian churches, that Mariam Khatoon ( Lady Mary ) had saved the life of the royal prince and was the only person who could cure the gelinjik, that being the Turkish term, derived from gelin, bride, and means the bride's disease. In Greek it is called nymphizze; it is a kind of cachexia, or hydrops alba. The royal Prince caught it in consequence of the measles, and they were in fear for his life, as his younger brother had died of the measles, having been improperly treated and bled during the disease.

As to the treatment which the Armenian lady employed, the following fact, which I insert, was generally rumored: — she placed the Prince in a heated oven (tandoor), which caused a profuse perspiration; after that, she fumigated him with the burning flesh of a weazel, also called nymphizze and his body was rubbed with oil. Besides this external treatment, she administered to him some medicines, of which the following three substances were the chief ingredients — ambergris, cochineal insects, and earth-worms. She ordered the Prince to observe a very strict regimen, not permitting him meat, or even broth, only light digestible fish (gelinjik balugi), because of its name being like that of the disease. This disease occurring frequently in the capital, and weasel flesh being a costly thing, the druggists there sell it dried. There are many Christian women, Greeks and Armenians, at Constantinople, practising the cure of that malady, the principal remedy for which, I am told, is Album Graecum (white dung of dogs). It is a question whether phosphate of lime might not take the place of that disgusting remedy, as it consists of nearly the same substances. That disease is said to occur in consequence of wrongly-treated acute eruptions, especially the measles, or in consequence of sudden fright or excessive fatigue: it gradually increases in virulence. It is to be recognised by a pulsation behind the ears and other parts; the pulse on the wrist is felt more up the arm than usual; the eyes and feet are swollen; the lips are pale; asthma is felt in walking, with weakness in the knees; finally, a slow consuming fever follows, which is succeeded by death.

I remained only two years at Constantinople, from the autumn of 1836 to that of 1838. During that time, my homoeopathic practice was extensive, as there were only myself and the private physician to the Russian ambassador who practised the new system; and it was so lucrative that I had no idea of leaving that place so soon, still less of returning to Lahore, until I learned from the Austrian internuncio, Baron Sturmer, who was in quarantine at Malta, and who had met with General Ventura, that the Maharajah had ordered the general to make inquiries for me in Europe, and to persuade me to go back to Lahore. Accordingly, the general invited me to accompany him thither, after the expiration of his leave of absence in the autumn. I yielded to this invitation, and went in company with the general from Alexandria to Bombay, whence he proceeded alone, with the utmost speed, to Lahore,as Runjeet Sing was dangerously ill, and as at that time the English were preparing to place the Shah Soojah on the throne of Cabul.

General Ventura was accompanied by a shawl merchant, named Monsieur Le Boeuf, and a captain of cavalry, M.Mouton, with his lady. These three persons the general requested me to accompany to Lahore, as they were unable to speak Hindostanee.

At Bombay we went on board a native vessel, and sailed to Gogo, and thence we continued our way, partly in carriages, partly on camels. Among our fellow travellers there were some native shawl merchants from Umritsir. We took the shortest road, through Palee, Ajmir, Hansi and Loodiana. We were hardly two days' journey from Gogo, when we were overtaken by two English captains, who had been ordered to examine our papers ; for they looked upon us as if we were Russian spies. At Palee the plague was raging, as it had then been for the last three years. Previous to our arrival there, we passed a very pleasant evening with the family of an English captain. On this occasion I made the acquaintance of an English physician, Dr. Keir, who informed me that the English physicians in India do not agree in their views respecting the plague at Palee: for some of them consider the disease to be a pestilential fever peculiar to India, while others declare it to be the same Plague that was so common in the East, and especially in Turkey and Egypt. He told me he would be very glad if I would write to him my opinion about it, should I on my journey observe the disease, as he considered it might be of great importance both to himself and to science, because I had had so much opportunity for studying the nature of the plague at Constantinople, adding that he intended to publish my report.

About noon we arrived at the infected Palee, where we ordered our tents to be pitched near to the large marsh, opposite to which the town lies. The first sight which presented itself to our eyes was the funeral trains of several of the inhabitants. After dinner, at two o'clock, I repaired to the governor, who was a Hindoo, and told him I was a traveller and a physician, and that I wished to see a few infected persons, and administer to them my medicines gratis, if he would kindly send some one to accompany me. He received me very affably, and yielded to my request. The man who accompanied me had not the trouble to escort me far, as in the very next house there were several patients, some of whom had only a short time to live. At these visits I neglected no circumspection and precaution. I never entered a house, but caused the patients to be brought before the door, where I examined them, writing down their names and their statements, and administering to them the remedies, and I departed without having touched any of them. The aspect of the town itself offered a sad spectacle: only now and then I met with a human being: the bazaars and shops were closed; they told me that the greater part of the inhabitants had either died, or left the town; and numbers of houses were quite deserted.The infected died in general on the third or fourth day; and scarcely one among twenty recovered. I saw carbuncles, buboes, bleeding at the nose — in one word all that I had seen in the hospital at Constantinople. I no longer, therefore, doubted that the disease was a most virulent Plague. It is true that it was not the plague of Turkey, Arabia or Egypt, but one peculiar to India; Palee being a province of that part of Asia. At four o'clock the same afternoon I returned to our tent, and retired to rest at the ordinary time, in the enjoyment of the best of health; and I should have slept longer than usual, if Madame Mouton had not come to awake me, and announce that the camels were ready for our departure. The moment I began to rise, I felt a pain in my groin; and a presentiment of having been infected with the plague, caused a rush of blood towards my heart, so that I had the feeling of one who had been stabbed with a dagger. The pain in the groin, the fever and my anxiety increased rapidly; and it was with difficulty that I moved a few steps, in order to examine the painful part, upon which I discovered some buboes, the size of peas. I felt a burning pain, so I placed myself in the kajaweh (basket) on my camel, and we departed. The station we had to reach was five miles distant; the reason why we made so short a journey was, that our only object was to quit the region of the plague, and even now I look upon it as fortunate that I was removed to a place where the healthy air probably aided the effect of the medicine which I had taken. As soon as we arrived at our station, I took some of the small pills of the above-mentioned Stryconos Faba St. Ignatii. Although Palee alone was infected by the plague, still the inhabitants of the village did not allow us to enter it; they, however, brought us all we were in want of, and took the money from our hands without any scruple. During my scientific excursion to Palee, my fellow-travellers had shot some ducks on the marshes, and these were prepared for our lunch. I was invited to partake of the repast, but did Dot feel any inclination to eat, as I was burning with fever, and my pain was almost insupportable; but not to cause suspicion, I took my place at the table, and the bits which I conveyed with one hand to my mouth, I transferred with the other to the napkin; this I performed with the skill of an adept. After dinner, I repeated the dose of the same medicine, laid down, and covered myself all over, and in a short time I began to perspire to such a degree, that my mattress was wetted through. In consequence of this perspiration, I got rid of the fever and anxiety, and entertained the hope of being restored to health, although the pains in the groin still continued. The swelling of the glands remained for three weeks, as I did not employ any local remedy. After my complete recovery; I wrote to the English physician (on whose account I had visited the infected town of Palee) the result of my experience, and read the letter to my companions, who manifested their astonishment, and blamed me for having exposed them to the infection of such a dangerous epidemic. My answer was, that I only did my duty as a physician, and that those who were not pleased with such proceedings ought not to travel in the society of a physician.

I cannot tell how it was that 1 caught the plague, in spite of all my precautions, unless it was that when I was entering the town, there was a violent wind blowing, whirling the pestiferous dust up into the air and this might have communicated the virus to my body externally, and even internally — externally, by absorption through the lachrymal glands of the eyes, the pituitous membrane of the nostrils, and the cavity of the ear; internally, by the respiration of the lungs. The infection was not produced by immediate contact; had that been the cause, I should certainly not have escaped it at Constantinople if the predisposition to it lies in every one. At this time I must have had a predisposition for the contagion, for some days before I had felt an itching in the body, and a kind of plethora, owing to the irregular manner of living which is consequent on the inconveniences and difficulties of long journeys. It is certain that the plague does not require a long time to develop itself, as it made its appearance a few hours after my visiting the patients. In some cases an interval of two or three days may occur before the symptoms are visible. The malaria of Palee, I believe, is generated by the exhalation of the immense marsh, whither thousands of birds and reptiles resort, and which serves at the same time as a depository for all the substances ejected from the town. The government could easily prevent the obnoxious influence of this marsh, by converting it into fertile ground.

Arrived at Lahore, I found my former patron, the Maharajah, Runjeet Sing, seated on a chair, with swollen feet, and making himself understood by gestures and signs with his hands ; his organs of speech being paralysed to such a degree, that he was not able to utter a single articulate sound, and other means of imparting his thoughts were not in his possession, as he never had learned to write.

From time to time I had occasion to relate many of the cures effected by the new method of homoeopathy, by the aid of which I had cured myself in Vienna of the cholera and lately in Hindoostan of the plague. Although they did not doubt the truth of my assertions, it was not without difficulty that they could prevail on themselves to trust me with the treatment of the maharajah, because the favourable season — it being spring — allowed the native physicians to rely on other trials which they had to make :meanwhile I succeeded in some homoeopathic cures quite to my satisfaction. But the greatest sensation produced, was by a cure which I undertook at the request of the minister, Raja Dhyan Sing. He committed to my medical care a native of Cashmere, Aboo Ibrahim, commander of his jesails (camel-artillery), in whose head, ten years previously, a bullet had been lodged at an affair with the Affghans, and which no native surgeon had been able to extract, and in consequence he was paralysed on one side. I trepanned him, and extracted the bullet which was stuck beneath the skull, and pressed the brain, without, however, affecting that organ. My patient having been a drunkard, and roubled with indigestion in consequence of his weakened stomach, I administered to him some physic,to accelerate his recovery; and I succeeded in restoring him to perfect health, in the short space of two months. When relieved from his hemiplegy, I presented him to the minister, and he introduced him to the Maharaja.

Meanwhile, the excessive heat had come on. At this time the fakeer Azeez-oo-Deen came unexpectedly and called on me, as the native physicians were unable to improve the health of the maharajah. This man, who had formerly been physician in ordinary to the king, told me that the maharajah had never taken any remedy prescribed by a European physician, and that he used to give all the remedies which had been ordered him by the English doctors, Murray,Steel, and Macgregor, to his servants, to try the effect on them ; but that he was now resolved to take my medicines, which I was to prepare in his presence. This I promised to do. It was then mid-day, the time when the durbar (assembly) leaves the palace, so,accompanied by the fakeer, I presented myself to the king. I found with him only the minister, Dhyan Sing. I had brought with me the tinctura Dulcamara, and three empty corked little phials. First of all, I asked for a gudwai (water-carrier), and ordered him to bring the spirit that the maharajah was in the habit of drinking; this had been distilled, in my presence, from Cabul grapes,and it was rectified, because Runjeet Sing preferred strong spirits. I put the three empty phials into the hands of the gudwai, and ordered them to be rinsed with the same spirit, and afterwards each of them to be half filled with spirit, about one drachm in each phial. When this was done, I put just one drop of the essence of Dulcamara (woody-nightshade) into one of those phials which the water-carrier held in his hand, and I ordered him to cork it and shake it. Then I desired the fakeer to mark it number "one," and I put a drop out of it into the second phial, causing it to be corked and shaken like the first and marked number "two". In the same manner, the third dilution was made, and number
“three" was marked on it. From this last, I ordered one single drop to be
let fall on a lump of sugar, which, at my request, the maharajah put into his mouth, where it was retained until dissolved. I ordered the same dose to be administered to the patient every morning and evening. During the preparation of the medicine, some persons who were standing by could not forbear smiling; and the fakeer himself was of opinion that such a minute dose could not be hurtful, should it even be supposed to be poison. But what was the result? On the first day there was no sensible amelioration in the health of the maharajah; On the second day he felt somewhat better; and on the third he was in such a merry humor that, at five o'clock in the afternoon, he ordered the minister, Dhyan Sing, to put a pair of gold bracelets on my arms, valued at five hundred rupees, in his own presence and in that of the durbar; this present was accompanied with two Cashmere shawls of the same value, and, whilst I sat on the floor, the minister laid them upon my shoulders, the maharajah telling me that my physic had produced in him the best effect. It was, of course, quite natural that this event should fill my heart with joy, as it inspired mc with the hope that the king would soon recover, and thus lay the first stone of my reputation and future fortune. This scene took place in the royal garden, Shahbelore, two miles from the city, where I had resided for three days. On the fourth day, early in the morning, the minister allowed me to visit my patients in the city; but while there, I heard that several mounted messengers had been despatched from Shahbelore to request me to return to that place. I galloped back; and on the road I overtook some hakims (Mohamedan physicians) and astrologers, travelling the same way, on elephants, on horseback, or carried in palanquins, from which I presumed that the maharajah had met with some accident, which made me very anxious. Arrived at Shahbelore, I was told that the maharajah had an attack of fever. On examining him, however, I could not find the least symptom of fever, it being in fact only excitement. The gudwai, who was in charge of the medicine, was of opinion that the fever proceeded from too great a dose, which the maharajah had asked for on the previous evening, namely, two drops at once; but I thought that could not be the cause of the alteration, one drop more or less not being able to produce such an effect. The physicians of the city were invited to a consultation. That was all they desired; for they had been touched to the quick on hearing that the maharajah was recovering, and that he had made me presents of gold and robes of honour. They would have preferred seeing the king die, rather than acknowledge me, an European, as his saviour. That was the reason why all my endeavours and all my demonstrations turned out fruitless. The prudent minister was of opinion, that it did not lie in his power to decide; the fakeer, Azeez-oo-Deen, exercising such magic influence on the maharajah, that only by addressing myself to him could I obtain any decision according to my desires. I reminded the fakeer of his own words, that such minute doses could not be hurtful, even if it should be poison. Besides, I observed, that it was not every fever, especially when appearing in so mild a form that could be of bad consequence, as nature sometimes cures diseases by reaction in the frame; and that, under such circumstances, it was advisable to lay aside all medicine, and await the result. But he objected to that, saying that the maharajah was too feeble to endure such a fever. '' But," continued he, "let us hear what opinion the other physicians have." All my arguments availed nothing. The consultation, at which the fakeer presided, was composed of a dozen hakims from Peshawur and Lahore, Hindoo physicians, astrologers, &c., each of whom imagined that he possessed the deepest knowledge of medical art. Most of them carried large books, to cover their want of real learning. In fine, they agreed unanimously to administer to the patient a majoon (electuary), of which jowahirad ( precious stones ) constituted the principal ingredient. The fakeer himself prepared and administered it to the patient; but in less than a fortnight the maharajah gave up his temporal life. He died at the fortress in my presence, upon which the minister ordered the gates to be shut; but I readily obtained his permission to absent myself. The fakeer, who exercised great influence in the household of the royal court, and who had begun his career at Lahore as a barber, with a few boxes of ointment, did not live long after his patron, Runjeet Sing. Azeez-oo-Deen — of Arabian origin, and descended from the Ansari Arabs of the desert — was the oracle of Runjeet Sing. He, the prime-minister Dhyan Sing, and Dewan-Deena-Nauth, minister of finance, constituted the triad of which the privy-council of the king was composed. The latter has been recently promoted to the rank of rajah by the English.

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